I think you'd have to try it and see how it worked out. Bubbles from a sponge filter don't seem to bother them, at least, not that I've noticed.. I haven't seen any floaters using a sponge filter, but I also make sure the uplift tube is just barely below the water surface, so bubbles don't go into the water column.
I would wonder whether feeding them with shrimp in there might be an issue. You have to feed them either green water or dissolved baker's yeast, or else have enough infusoria and bacteria in the water column to support them. Those last two are not so easy to arrange. I don't think yeast or green water would bother shrimp much, unless you overfeed it. That is where I have had some problems.
I think I have fed too much at one time to the daphnia I've tried to raise. This can cause big problems, so I read, by consuming too much oxygen from the water column, thus killing the daphnia, which is what happened to mine. If it kills daphnia, I'm guessing it might kill shrimp as well.
I would also wonder if shrimp would eat the resting eggs daphnia can produce, which sink to the bottom of the tank where shrimp forage. Not at all sure about that, but I'd wonder.